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Intermediate Latin

LATIN 221/222

Intermediate Latin

Description and Objectives

Students will continue their overview of all the grammar and morphology of the Latin language begun in Elementary Latin, and begin reading some unadapted ancient and medieval texts (e.g. Vergil, Catullus, Caesar, medieval texts, etc.).

Students will begin taking the quarterly Morphology Exam, a 100-point multiple choice exam comprehensive of all the forms of nouns, adjectives, pronouns, and verbs of the language administered to Latin students at all levels.

Two semesters. Offered every year. Prerequisite: Elementary Latin.

Periods offered during AY 2019–2020: 3rd (Yaceczko), 4th (Babendreier), 6th (Babendreier), 7th (Yaceczko).


Jerome’s Introduction to Latin. Lionel Yaceczko.

The prototype version of this textbook is being used in the first stage of the peer review process by school faculty only before it will be revised and submitted for publication.

Students will be given a personal copy of the textbook, which must be brought to class every day.


These are reference works to be used for a lifetime, and the student is strongly urged to consider that digital versions of reference works lack the essential characteristic of delay, the interval between the time when the question arises in the mind and the time when the question is answered. This is the time period in which the space in the memory where new information will dwell is created. If one definition of learning is the expansion of the capacity for memory and the actual exercise of memory, then digital reference works skip this essential step  of the learning process.

Course Requirements

Students will be expected to memorize paradigms for quizzes about two times per week.

Students will be expected to memorize vocabulary lists for quizzes about once per week.

Students will be expected to prepare sentences for in-class translation on most days when there is not a quiz or test.

Students will take at least four tests, usually one per quarter. These tests will be comprehensive of the sentences, vocabulary, and paradigms of four chapters. If the student is consistently preparing for daily translations and quizzes, he should not need to study for these tests.

Twice per semester, students in LAT 221 (Intermediate Latin) or above will take the Morphology Exam. This exam consists of 100 multiple choice questions. The student will be expected to parse any noun, adjective, pronoun, or verb form by analogy with other forms. A student’s score on the Morphology Exam, if higher than his quarter average, will replace his quarter grade. Seniors in advanced Latin must score at least a 90 on the Morphology Exam at some point during their Heights career to be eligible to receive a grade of A- or better for their fourth quarter grade.

Goals for Student Learning

Why do we do this?

The goal for student learning is to ensure that you either 1.) have mastered the morphology and the base vocabulary of Latin, or at least 2.) know what exercises are necessary to accomplish this goal by doing these exercises.

Over the course of the next two semesters in Intermediate Latin, you will do many DANs and Synopses, until you can do a DAN in five minutes or less, and a Synopsis in ten minutes or less. Think about it: that means your summer assignment could take as little as 90 minutes.

These goals will prepare you for any Advanced Latin course.

• Master the 1,000 most common words in the Latin language. This vocabulary is based on word frequencies in the Latin literature of the first two centuries of either Era. The list, originally compiled by the University of Liège, was digitized by the Classics Department of Dickinson College, and may be found here:

• Master all the morphology of the Latin language:

Nouns: be able to decline all 1st–5th declension nouns.


1st: terra, -ae, f.

2nd masc.: animus, -i, m.

2nd neut.: bellum, -i, n.

3rd: rex, regis, m.

4th: manus, -us, f.

5th: res, rei, f.

Adjectives: be able to decline all adjectives, those of the 1st-2nd declension, and those of the 3rd declension. Be able also to form the comparative degree and superlative degree from the lexical form of an adjective. Be able also to form the positive, comparative, and superlative degrees of adverbs from the lexical form of an adjective.


1st-2nd declension: altus, -a, -um, high; altior, altius, higher, rather high, too high; altissimus, -a, -um, highest, very high (quam altissimus, as high as possible)

alte, highly; altius, more highly, rather highly, too highly; altissime, most highly, very highly (quam altissime, as highly as possible)

3rd declension adjectives: gravis, -e, heavy; gravior, gravius, heavier, rather heavy, too heavy; gravissimus, -a, -um, heaviest, very heavy (quam gravissimus, as heavy as possible)

Pronouns and Demonstratives (collectively considered “demonstratives” for the purposes of doing a DAN): be able to decline all the demonstrative pronouns and adjectives:

• hic, haec, hoc, this (in front of me); the latter

• iste, ista, istud, that (in front of you)

• ille, illa, illud, that (in front of him); the former

• is, ea, id, this/that (an adjective of weaker identity); he/she/it (the most common form of the 3rd person pronoun)

• qui, quae, quod, who/which; that (the relative pronoun)

Verbs: be able to conjugate verbs of all conjugations, 1st–4th as well as irregulars.


1st: puto, putare, putavi, putatus, think

2nd: doceo, docere, docui, doctus, teach

3rd: lego, legere, legi, lectus, read

3rd (-io): capio, capere, cepi, captus, take

4th: aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus, open

The five aspects of a verb are: Person, Number, Tense, Voice, and Mood.

• Person: 1st, 2nd, 3rd

• Number: Singular, Plural

• Tense: Present, Imperfect, Future (the Present System); Perfect, Pluperfect, Future Perfect (the Perfect System)

• Voice: Active, Passive

• Mood: Indicative, Subjunctive, Infinitive, Participle, Imperative

There are thus approximately 172 forms for any regular Latin verb.

Successful Students

  • Study Latin at least fifteen solid minutes every day of the week, (that means tunnel vision from 0–15, no distractions, no touching or looking at a phone, not even a bathroom break
  • Re-translate, as soon as possible, on the same day, what we have translated together in class, to consolidate and firmly establish new knowledge,
  • Seek extra help—don’t wait until you have a problem!—outside of class, not only from the instructor, who is available before/after school every day, but also from classmates. Students in more advanced Latin classes than you are will be happy to help!
  • Do synopses and DANS, at least one per week.

Additional Resources

Latin DAN (worth one quiz grade of extra credit)

• Dr. Yaceczko’s Latin Verb Synopsis (worth double extra credit)

Mr. Babendreier’s Latin Verb Synopsis

Latin Verb Synopsis JV (worth one quiz grade of extra credit)

Dickinson College Latin Vocabulary List

• Allen and Greenough’s New Latin Grammar

° a PDF of this and many other useful Latin and Greek language learning texts can be found at

° Digitized version hosted by Tufts University’s Perseus website here

Logeion online Latin and Greek dictionaries

• 2019–20 Heights LAT 221–2 Intermediate Latin Syllabus 3rd period

Summer Assignment

Turn in two Latin DANs (this form contains two) and two Latin Verb Synopses (JV) (this form contains one) per month, on the last day of each month, for a total of six (6) DANs and six (6) JV Synopses, due on June 30th, July 31st, and August 31st. These should be e-mailed to the instructor.

• DANs must have a noun and adjective from different declensions.

Here you may find a sample of a Completed DAN.

Do the six phrases below:

this republic: haec res publica

hic, haec, hoc; res, rei, f.; publicus, -a, -um

that first charge: ille primus impetus

ille, illa, illud; primus, -a, -um; impetus, -us, m.

the very queen who pardons: ipsa regina parcens

ipse, ipsa, ipsum; regina, -ae, f.; parcens, parcentis

a certain king that will return: quidam rex rediturus

quidam, quaedam, quoddam; rex, regis, m.; rediturus, -a, -um

the same oath to be sworn: idem ius iurandum

idem, eadem, idem; ius, iuris, n.; iurandus, -a, -um

that stronger castle: istud castellum validius

iste, ista, istud; castellum, -i, n.; validior, validius

• Synopses must have a regular transitive verb (not an intransitive or a deponent verb).

Here you may find a Sample of a Completed JV Latin Verb Synopsis. Dr. Yaceczko and Mr. Babendreier have different forms—make sure you get the right one:

Dr. Yaceczko’s Latin Verb Synopsis

Mr. Babendreier’s Latin Verb Synopsis

Do the six verbs below:

1st: puto, putare, putavi, putatus, think—1st person singular

2nd: doceo, docere, docui, doctus, teach—2nd person singular

3rd: lego, legere, legi, lectus, read—3rd person singular

3rd (-io): capio, capere, cepi, captus, take—1st person plural

4th: aperio, aperire, aperui, apertus, open—2nd person plural

irregular: fero, ferre, tuli, latus, bear (carry)—3rd person plural

This is the minimum. Any DANs and Synopses done over the summer (beyond the minimum) will count as extra credit toward your first quarter grade.

You will have to choose your own words to make these. It is recommended that you choose words from the Dickinson College Latin Vocabulary List.